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Surveys are required of a single bird species for a variety of reasons, whether it be for EcIA or Appropriate Assessments.
Developments occurring in lowland Britain can require surveys for bird species that received enhanced protection through being scheduled on the Wildlife and Countryside Act. The two most common species encountered in the lowlands with this protection are Barn Owl and Kingfisher.
A likely scenario where a species-specific survey would need to occur would be the conversion of derelict buildings or barns into residential properties, here a Barn Owl survey would be required to proof presence or absence.
Another likely scenario for a species-specific survey would be a proposed development occurring next to a proposed SPA, for example an SPA designated for heathland breeding birds. In this case a species-specific survey may be needed for Nightjars to check whether they are foraging or breeding on the site in question.
All species-specific surveys follow the methodology detailed in Bird Monitoring Methods (Gilbert et al, 1998).